This is a translated article of Identidad y Memoria de Santa Catalina, Nuevo Leon written by Antonio Guerrero Aguilar. The original article can be found on the following website, http://identidadymemoriadesantacatarina.blogspot.com/2015/06/el-capitan-lucas-garcia.html

Lucas Garcia is my 10th great grandfather and I also descend from him directly, as well as through other lineages. The words in red are my addition to the text.

On June 3, 1624, Lucas García asked to revalidate the titles that were lost during the assault of Huajuco and Colmillo. The founder of Santa Catarina was originally from Portugal. His date of birth is unknown, son of Baltazar Castaño de Sosa and Inés Rodríguez (don Diego de Montemayor’s daughter). At a young age, he moved to New Spain and was present at the foundation of the Villa de Santiago del Saltillo in 1577 (his father, don Baltazar, was one of the founder’s of la Villa de Santiago del Saltillo). He participated in war and pacification actions alongside Alberto del Canto, Diego de Montemayor (Lucas’s maternal grandfather), and Manuel de Mederos. He reached the rank of captain. He married Juliana de Quintanilla and they formed an integrated family of eleven children.

For more information on Baltazar Castaño de Sosa click on Castaño de Sosa…Basque?
captain Lucas Garcia

Statue of Captain Lucas Garcia in Santa Catalina, Nuevo Leon.

Lucas and his family were one of the twelve families who accompanied Diego de Montemayor in the founding of the Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey on September 20, 1596. He was granted the lands that were between Saltillo and Monterrey that received the name of Santa Catalina and it became a hacienda due to the good lands and the water that flowed out of the Boca del Potrero de Santa Catalina. On November 20, 1596, due to the orographic conditions, important silver veins were soon located that allowed the development of the hacienda. According to oral tradition, the hacienda of Santa Catalina was established in the place known as El Mármol, located on República Street behind an estate known as La Muralla.

On May 31, 1624, Indian caciques Huajuco and Colmillo attacked the hacienda of Santa Catalina. They burned the big house, the warehouses and the deeds of the property of the hacienda were lost, for that reason they had to move the big house near where the temple of Santa Catarina currently is. Captain Lucas García learned the native languages ​​and for the good treatment that he gave to the native tribes, the ethnic nations called him “the captain of peace”. He was a councilman of Monterrey in 1599, 1601, 1605 and 1606. Ordinary Mayor of Monterrey in 1602, 1603, 1607, 1611, 1624, 1627 and 1628. In 1616 he was appointed Procurator of the New Kingdom of León. He died between 1630 and 1631.

“We must reject the idea that every time a law’s broken, society is guilty rather than the lawbreaker. It is time to restore the American precept that each individual is accountable for his actions.”

—Ronald Reagan, Speech at the Republican National Convention, Miami Beach, Florida, August 1968

Baltazar Castaño de Sosa is my direct 11th great grandfather. In other words, from father to son, my paternal lineage. Although I descend from him in other lineages within my family history, I find this ancestor of mine quite unique.

While investigating my ancestry, I took two DNA test, one from 23andme, and the second one from Family Tree DNA. The results are very identical and they almost match. But much to my surprise the results from 23andme revealed to me to which haplogroups I belong to. A haplogroup is a genetic population group of people who share a common ancestor on the patriline or the matriline. I will share my ancestry results in a youtube video at a later time.

So my paternal haplogroup is R-M153, which is of Basque origin and my maternal haplogroup is J1b, which is of Middle-Eastern origin, possibly of Jewish heritage!

Basque!! I had no idea! I was in shock! Maybe that explains why I feel such a connection with the Pyrenees Mountains. Soon I will travel to the land of my fathers, the Basque Country.

This leads to me Baltasar Castaño de Sosa. As I stated at the beginning, Baltasar is my 11th great grandfather and this new DNA discovery also makes him of Basque heritage. During my research on Baltazar, I have found numerous information stating that he was a New Christian. A New Christian was a person who practiced a different faith, like Judaism and Islam, but later converted to the Catholic faith. These conversions were forced or voluntary. In other words, the Church could take possession of the individual’s land, titles, and/or expulsed the individual if he/she refused to convert. If a person did not convert he or she could also be tortured and executed. Some converted but would still practice their true faith in secret.

This could have been the story of Baltazar’s family. He could have had relatives that were New Christians. Not much is known of his parents or other relatives. I have yet to found any information about his parents and so to state that they were New Christians is very unclear.

Here is what is known about Baltazar Castaño de Sosa:

According to David T. Raphael, in his book The Conquistadores and Crypto-Jews of Monterrey, Baltazar was born in Portugal, since Portugal was under the control of Spain at that time in history. According to Carl LaurenceDuaine, author of With All Arms, declares that Baltazar was born in Tampico, Nueva España. His place of birth is uncertain.

It is believed that Baltazar and Gaspar Castaño de Sosa were brothers.

Baltasar was one of the sixteen founders of Saltillo, also known as the Villa de Saltillo. He received his land grant from Alberto del Canto in 1577. He also served as councilman for the municipality of Saltillo. He married Ines Rodriguez, who was the daughter of don Diego de Montemayor, Governor of the Nuevo Reino de Leon.

He had three sons: Lucas Garcia, Diego Rodriguez, and Alonso Rodriguez. I descend from all three sons but I descend directly from the Capitan Lucas Garcia.

Now that Lucas Garcia is mentioned, I have found it difficult to figure out as to why he took the Garcia surname. In the book, Familias de Santa Catarina, written by Antonio Guerrero Aguilar, is a piece of evidence as to why Lucas was given or chose the Garcia surname. In page 30, according to the informant, Hidelbrando Garza, states that Lucas took the Garcia surname from his maternal grandmother. His maternal grandparents were Diego Rodriguez and Ines Garcia.

This is long and will be a challenge but my goal is to find out Baltazar’s parents and his paternal ancestors and to find other direct descendants of Capitan Baltazar Castaño de Sosa. Anyone interested in this journey is welcome to join and contact me with any questions or information.

On June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed which imposed severe conditions on Germany. Germany was threatened of being invaded and was forced to sign the treaty and accepts responsibility for the war which led them to make huge payments for the damages done. The treaty limited Germany’s military and transferred territory to neighboring countries. The establishment of the Weimar Republic after the World War I was a weak government which provided the rise of a new leader, Adolf Hitler. Hitler was influential and a captivating speaker who attracted Germans in desperate for change. In order to understand the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) ideologies, it is necessary to look into Hitler’s life before the Treaty of Versailles, his mentors, the origin of his anti-Semitism, and how he upheld them.

Adolf Hitler was the son of Alois Hitler, a custom worker, and of Klara Poelzl. Alois retired from the custom service at the age of fifty-eight. He wished that his son would also follow his footsteps as a civil servant but Adolf refused[1] Adolf mentioned the struggle he had with his father over such topics, reflecting on how his father did not support him when he spoke about becoming an artist. Hitler was not a devoted student while in school nor was he fond of teachers. He stated, “When I think of the men who were my teacher, I realize that most of them were slightly mad…”[2].

In addition to the insult, he called Eduard Huemer a “congenital idiot” because he taught French. Professor Huemer described Adolf as “gifted but lacked self-control, as well as argumentive, autocratic, self-opinionated and bad-tempered, and unable to submit to school discipline.”[3] Among the teachers that he hated there was one professor who he admired most, Dr. Leopold Poetsch, a history and a fanatical German nationalist. Dr. Poetsch was the one who transformed Hitler into a young revolutionist. While still in school he received “adequate marks” in German, chemistry, physics, geometry, but his stronger subjects were history, geography and freehand drawing.

After getting out of school his mother and other relatives urged him to seek a trade in order to support the family but he declined to help out by not getting a job. The idea of earning a living by any regular employment was hideous to him. He was never employed and that gave him the liberty to roam the city streets reading and listening to the works of Richard Wagner. At the age of sixteen, Hitler was obsessed with politics and he had developed a fanatical hatred for the Hapsburg monarchy and for all the non-Germans races in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Adolf Hitler identified himself as a fanatical German nationalist. After his mother’s death and at the age of nineteen he left for Vienna.

As the twentieth century began the Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Jews, and others were demanding equality in Austria. Social and racial struggles were often seen when Hitler was in Vienna. Adolf opposed any equality for the minorities in the Austrian-German Empire. He believed the non-German races were inferior and that it was up to the German people to rule with an iron hand.[4] It is likely that Hitler experienced shared the general anti-Semitism among the German nationalist however, it is recorded that he dealt with Jews while in he lived in Vienna. He supported the idea that the Parliament must be abolished and that it should stop its democratic “nonsense”. He followed and observed the three major political parties in Austria: the Social Democrats, the Christian Socialists, and the Pan-German Nationalist.

Senator Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky, a member of a congressional committee investigating Nazi atrocities, views the evidence at first hand at Buchenwald concentration

Senator Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky, a member of a congressional committee investigating Nazi atrocities, views the evidence at first hand at Buchenwald concentration.

His observation on the political parties helped him developed strategies, such as how to use propaganda, how to create a mass movement of people and the value of using spiritual and physical terror. Another method that he figured out was not to oppose the Catholic Church. He explained, “ a political party must never for a moment lose sight of the fact that in all previous historical experience a purely political party has never succeeded in producing a religious reformation.”[5] He learned that he had to gain some support from the powerful establishments such as the Church, Army, cabinet members, or the Head of state.

Hitler moved to Munich, Germany in May 1913. He did so seeking to avoid being arrested because of his military service responsibility to Habsburg, Austria. In Munich, he continued to roam, supporting himself on his watercolors sketches until World War I gave his life a path and a reason to which he could commit himself a lot more by joining the Bavarian German Army. Hitler is recorded as being a brave soldier. He was wounded twice and was twice decorated for bravery. He was awarded the Iron Cross, Second Class and the Iron Cross, First Class.[6] It was not until after World War I that Hitler had totally adopted an anti-Semitic ideology.

The end of the war was a loss and huge tragedy for Hitler, as well as to many other Germans too. It brought the threat of disbandment, slitting him from the only community in which he had ever felt that he had a purpose and returning him to a civilian life with no bright future.[7] The time he spent in Vienna as well as in the trenches during World War I were fundamental phases which help him developed his ideology. Hitler’s service in the army during the First World War appears to have shaped his commitment to an anti-Semitism that was grounded on the ideology of social Darwinist race-theory which also led to the creation of a nationalism founded on the need to combat the power hold of the Jews.

Although antisemitism was not new in Europe it did attract the multitude. Hitler’s hatred for the Jews might have started when he was a teen [8]. Hitler had many ways of referring to the Jews. When giving a speech Hitler would associate certain words to the Jews, such as corruption, selfishness, cowardice, materialism, and traitors. He refers to them as cowards and traitors because he saw that they would not fight alongside the Germans during the Great War. On the other hand, the Germans were associated with opposite virtues like honesty, bravery, and self-sacrifice.[9]

One of Hitler’s mentors was Karl Lueger. Karl was the leader of the Christian Socialist Party in Austria; he was a known anti-Semite. Karl Lueger was the mayor of Vienna and his government organized prejudiced practices against Jews. Some practices would consist of not hiring Jews in the city services, as well as limiting the number of Jewish students into high schools and universities. On the other hand, he had a habit of helping needy Jews and he would even attend their services in the synagogue. Karl Lueger is reported to have said: “It is up to me to decide who is a Jew”.[10] Hitler did not agree with this idea but still respected Karl Lueger. On September 16, 1919, Hitler issued his first written comment on the so-called Jewish Question. He defined the Jews as a race and not a religious community, branded the effect of a Jewish presence as a “race-tuberculosis of the peoples,” and identified the primary goal of a German government was discriminatory legislation against Jews. The Reich’s “ultimate goal must definitely be the removal of the Jews altogether.”[11] Hitler and the Nazis viewed the Jews as a venomous race which lived off the other races and weakened them. (How do you dehumanize a certain group? By making them subhuman. This was the tactics that Hitler used.)

Hitler spread his belief on racial purity and in the superiority of the “German Race” which he called the Aryan race. This notion of the Aryan race came from Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau. Gobineau was a Frenchmen who became famous for developing the racist concept of the Aryan master race in his book, An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855).[12] His theory was that race was the “single most significant factor determining the nature of human civilization, with the white race being responsible for all the great advances in history”. He saw the barriers between the races as natural. This conflict has existed since the beginning of human history. According to Gobineau the “mixture of race” would lead to the annihilation of civilization. Unfortunately, the Nazi adopted this kind of mentality which led to the massacre against the Jews and many other ethnic groups.

The Nazis began to put their ideology into practice with the provision of German scientists who believed that the human race could advance by restraining the reproduction of the other “inferior races”. Hitler views in history boiled down to the crude and naïve version of Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism is the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. His most important belief was that in order to have a superior army the nation had to be purified from within. Not only does this enables us to see how central his world views the principle of struggle was but it also shows why Hitler believed Germany lost the First World War. When considering Hitler observation of the causes of Germany’s defeat in 1918 it is important to remember that he regarded military developments on the battlefield, the progress of the fighting capacities and determination of the German army, and political development on the German home front as a mere phenomenon that expressed the racial decline of the German race. According to Hitler, this meant that Germany was not able to be protected because of other minorities within the army and nation. This is one of the many reasons why Hitler was so expressive of his hatred toward the Jews and other minorities.

In 1933, physicians in Germany could perform sterilizations making it impossible for the Nazi victims to have children. Among the victims, there were ethnic minorities, mentally ill people, handicapped individuals, and individuals with African ancestry. [13] The only way for the Nazis to have had taken the complete power of Germany was to eliminate anyone who opposed them and indoctrinate its citizens with their propaganda. Nazi teachers in classrooms began to teach the doctrines of racial science. They would demonstrate to their students how to recognize a Jew or someone who is not of the Aryan race. Another method that was used to improve the German race was to not intermarry with any minority race. The Nazi Party went as far as creating laws in order to prevent any mixture of “race”. Ruedolf states, “The German Empire will not rise again until the good German blood rises.”[14] R. W. Dare portrays the very same mentality on marriage, “it is surprising to discover in the old traditions the extent to which German marriage laws were filled with wisdom about the interdependence of blood and culture…Today our people seem to have lost all this wisdom…”.[15]

In short, Hitler’s indoctrination and hatred led his nation in the same path. A path of darkness and uncontrolled evils. So, let us be vigilant and cautious. How do we oppose such ideas? By opposing it with another idea. In today’s societies, we can observe these same tactics being used from the extreme left as well as from the far right. Let us learn from the past, a human is a human in the womb and after birth, no matter was culture or ethnicity we come from. As leaders in our communities, we must learn from the past that hunts us with the hope of living a brighter future.

[1] William L. Shirer, The Rise And Fall Of The Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), 11.

[2]Ibid., 12.

[3] Ibid.,13.

[4] Ibid., 22.

[5] Ibid., 23.

[6] Ibid., 30.

[7] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Adolf Hitler and World War I: 1913-1919, Holocaust Encyclopedia. www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007431. Accessed on April 25, 2016.

[8] Shirer, The Rise and Fall, 25.

[9] Neil Gregor, How to Read Hitler, (New York: W.W Norton and Company, 2005), 9.

[10] Jewish Virtual Library, Karl Lueger, Encyclopaedia Judaica, www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0013_0_12844.html. Accessed on April 25, 2016.

[11] Jewish Virtual Library, Adolf Hitler: First Anti-Semitic Writing, Encyclopaedia Judaica, www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Adolf_Hitler’s_First_Antisemitic_Writing.html. Accessed April 24,2016.

[12] Gregor, How to Read Hitler, 37.

[13] United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Nazi Racism, Holocaust Encyclopedia, www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?Moduleld=10007679. Accessed on April 4, 2016.

[14] Barbra Miller, Nazi Ideology before 1933: A Documentation, (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1978), 111.

[15] Ibid, 112.

“Today, more than ever, citizens demand with good reason that moral and ethical principles be upheld and that exemplariness presides over our public life. And the king, as the head of state, must not only be an example but also a servant to that just and legitimate demand of the citizens.”

“Hoy, más que nunca, los ciudadanos demandan con toda razón que los principios morales y éticos inspiren -y la ejemplaridad presida- nuestra vida pública. Y el Rey, a la cabeza del Estado, tiene que ser no sólo un referente sino también un servidor de esa justa y legítima exigencia de los ciudadanos.”

-Felipe VI de Borbon y de Grecia, Rey de España

 

 

Agriculture, manufactures, commerce, and navigation, the four pillars of our prosperity, are the most thriving when left to individual enterprise

—-Thomas Jefferson, First Annual Message to Congress, December 8, 1801

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